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  • Summary Model results for the distribution of where at least 1% available light touches the seabed (the photic zone) and non-photic zone in the Baltic Sea based on 1% mean annual irradiance Description This dataset shows model results forthe distribution of where at least 1% available light touches the seabed (the photic zone) and non-photic zone in the Baltic Sea based on 1% mean annual irradiance. From an ecological point of view, available light is one of the primary physical parameters influencing and structuring the biological communities in the marine environment, as it is the driving force behind the primary production by providing the energy for the photosynthesis - energy that ultimately is transferred to other organisms not capable of photosynthesis. The depth of the photic zone is traditionally defined, for benthic plants, as the depth where 1% of the surface irradiance (as measured just below the water surface) is available for photosynthesis. Only two intervals based on light regime were used in the dataset, because they reflect the significant ecological difference between the shallow water depth with the presence of submerged aquatic vegetation, and the deeper waters where fauna (and bacteria) dominate diversity of species, abundance, and biomass. The intervals are: I. The photic zone (where at least 1% of the available light touches the seabed). II. The non-photic zone.The measurements of Secchi Depth used for producing this dataset are not evenly distributed and some areas in the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Riga and southern Baltic are not well covered.

  • This dataset is the first dedicated SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) product for the Baltic basin to enhance the science capabilities in the Baltic region and help to fill the gaps and grand challenges identified by the scientific community. These new product has been created under the funded ESA project ITT Baltic+ Salinity dynamics (4000126102/18/I-BG). This basin is one of the most challenging regions for the satellite SSS retrieval. The available EO-based SSS products are quite limited in terms of spatio-temporal coverage and quality. This is mainly due to technical limitations that strongly affect the brightness temperatures (TB), such as the high contamination by interferences and the contamination close to land and ice edges. Moreover, the sensitivity of TB to SSS changes is very low and dielectric models present limitations in this low salinity regime. Baltic+ L4 SSS product comprises 9 years (2011-2019) of daily maps at 0.05 degrees. A detailed explanation of the product algorithms and validation can be found at and in the publication: Gonzalez-Gambau et al., “First SMOS Sea Surface Salinity dedicated products over the Baltic Sea“, Earth System Science Data, 2021 We present here the seasonal averaged Baltic+ L4 SSS products for the period 2011-2019. The daily Baltic+ L4 SSS products can be downloaded from the BEC FTP service (s in the directory OCEAN/SSS/SMOS/Baltic/v1.0/L4/daily/