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Data set represents dredging activities around the Baltic Sea. The dataset contains information about the dredging activity and for some the type (capital, maintenance) and the year of activity as reported by HELCOM Contracting Parties in response to data request. The dredging data is missing from Denmark.
The dataset contains sand and gravel extraction activity during 2011–2015. The dataset is based on data submission by HELCOM Contacting Parties in response to data request. The dataset is quality assured and contains data from all the Baltic Sea countries. Common extraction sites with information on volume of extraction was included in the dataset. The other extraction sites (building sites, exclusive sites) had only summed data for all the sites, as volumes of extraction in specific sites was classified as confidential information. For these sites the volumes was calculated from reported sum of "other extraction areas". The amount was equally divided between corresponding extraction areas. For some common extraction sites a shared amount was reported.
Input of impulsive anthropogenic sound includes impulsive events from 2011-2016 • Seismic surveys (HELCOM-OSPAR Registry; national data call submissions as lines in the folder of data) • Explosions (HELCOM-OSPAR Registry) • Pile driving (HELCOM-OSPAR Registry) • Airguns (HELCOM-OSPAR Registry) For the different event types, numeric intensity value was used to represent the pressure as categorized in HELCOM-OSPAR Impulsive noise registry. All nationally reported seismic surveys were given intensity values “Very low” (0.25) - Very low (0.25) - Low (0.5) - Medium (0.75) - High (1) The impact distance has not been taken into account due to the different nature of separate datasets used for the pressure layer. We acknowledge that e.g. pile driving and airguns may impact up to 20 km from the source event. The spread of the sound wave depends on the sound frequency, water salinity, temperature and density.
Concentration of phosphorus pressure layer is interpolated from annual seasonal average of total phosphorus measurements from surface waters (0-10 m) extracted from ICES’s oceanographic database, database of Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, EEA’s Eionet database and Data from Gulf of Finland year 2014. The points were interpolated to cover the entire Baltic Sea with Spline with barriers interpolation method. Values were log-transformed and normalised (more detailed description below).
This dataset is built from following Human activities datasets: • http://metadata.helcom.fi/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/81c917ea-492d-48e2-9f00-e1bb7fe3e4fc • http://metadata.helcom.fi/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/4fcd51dd-b8be-4e83-8cad-37c566782e8f The game hunting of seabirds data (see separate metadata): The total number of hunted seabirds were averaged over 2011-2015 (number of hunted seabirds / year). The area of the reporting unit was used to calculate the number of hunted seabirds / km2 and the data was converted to 1km x 1km grid. The predator control of seabirds data (see separate metadata): The total number of hunted cormorants were averaged over 2011-2015 (number of hunted cormorants / year). The area of the reporting unit was used to calculate the number of hunted cormorants / km2 and the data was converted to 1km x 1km grid. The two datasets were first separately log transformed and then summed, to get the total value for each grid cell. Zero values were given to all grid cells with no reported seabird hunting activity. The layer was normalized.
This dataset contains modelled small vessel fuel consumption. This describes the geographical distribution of the fuel used by small boats. The total fuel consumption was modelled in SHEBA project to study emissions from pleasure boats. The model is based on locations and berths in marinas and leisure harbours, AIS information, statistics on fuel sale and extensive survey. For 2018 version the layer is weighted with depth, log-transformed and normalised (please see below).
'Availability of deep water habitat, based on occurrence of H2S' layer describes the suitability of the bottom areas for the Baltic Sea biota, with regard to oxygen conditions of the near bottom waters. The data used to produce the layer was received from Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde (IOW): - areas (polygons) with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) based on point measurements and modelling. Five time periods / year, for years 2011-2016 (altogether 30 layers). The polygons were converted to raster layers in a way, that for each time period (6 years, 5 time periods each year), areas with H2S got a value 0, other areas got the value 1. All layers were summed, (representing 6 years, 5 time periods each year, maximum value 30) and data was normalised. For more detailed information on the data used, please see Feistel et al. 2016.
This data set on deposition sites of dredged material (areas) reported by HELCOM Contracting parties according to http://www.helcom.fi/Recommendations/Rec%2036-2.pdf for the reporting period 2011-2016. The dataset contains data reported by nationally by nominated experts by HELCOM PRESSURE group for Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Sweden.
Distribution of Furcellaria lumbricalis based on data submission by HELCOM contracting parties. Mainly pointwise occurrences of Furcellaria were submitted, originally gathered in national mapping and monitoring campaigns, or for scientific research purposes. From Estonian waters, a predictive model was used (200m resolution), that was converted to presence/absence using minimized difference threshold (MDT) criteria. For Poland, only confirmed occurrence of Furcellaria were included (Slupsk bansk, Rowy reef and reef at Orlowo cliff). All data (Furcellaria points and the raster presenting predicted presence of Furcellaria) were generalized to 5km x 5km grid cells.
The pressure oil slicks and spills is combination of following datasets: • Illegal oil discharges • Polluting ship accidents Illegal oil discharge data is based on airborne surveillance with remote sensing equipment in the Baltic Sea Area. The area of the detected spills in 2011–2016 was used to represent the pressure. The value of spills under 1km2 were directly given to grid cell, spills over 1km2 were buffered based on estimate spill area. For polluting ship accidents the reported oil spill volumes (m3) in years 2011-2015 were used for the pressure. Some polluting ship accidents spills were missing spilled oil volume, thus a mean of reported volumes was given to accidents with missing oil volume. Datasets were handled separately. Both layers were normalized, summed and normalized again to produce the “oil slicks and spills” pressure layer. Please see below for further details.