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The occurrence of suitable nursery habitats is crucial for maintaining fish populations (Sundblad et al. 2013). Species distribution modelling studies have shown the importance of suitable environmental conditions for pikeperch recruitment. Due to lack of coherent data on pikeperch spawning and nursery areas across the Baltic Sea countries, environmental variables were used in delineating potential recruitment areas for pikeperch. The pikeperch recruitment area presented on the map is mainly delineated by selecting areas where depth < 5 m, logged exposure < 5, salinity < 7 PSU, Secchi depth < 2 m and distance to deep (10m) water < 4km. The threshold values have been obtained from literature (Veneranta et al. 2011, Bergström et al. 2013, Sundblad et al. 2013, Kallasvuo et al. 2016). Temperature, although important for pikeperch, was left out due to high variation in timing of suitable spawning temperatures across the Baltic Sea. In Finnish coastal waters, a national pikeperch model (Kallasvuo et al. 2016) has been used, with very suitable areas for pikeperch generalized to 1 km grid. In Sweden, the areas delineated by environmental variables have been complemented with information from national interview survey (Gunnartz et al. 2011) as well as expert opinion.
Submarine structures made by leaking gases (according to Habitats Directive Annex I) are also known as “bubbling reefs”. These formations support a zonation of diverse benthic communities consisting of algae and/or invertebrate specialists of hard marine substrates different to that of the surrounding habitat. The distribution map is based on data submission by HELCOM contracting parties. Only Sweden and Denmark reported occurrences of submarine structures made by leaking gases.
The occurrence of suitable nursery habitats is crucial for maintaining fish populations (Sundblad et al. 2013). For perch, species distribution modelling studies (Snickars et al. 2010, Bergström et al. 2013, Sundblad et al. 2013) have shown the importance of suitable environmental conditions for reproduction. Due to lack of coherent data on perch spawning and nursery areas across the Baltic Sea countries, environmental variables were used in delineating potential recruitment areas for perch. The distribution area or perch recruitment is delineated by selecting areas where depth < 4 m (For Danish waters < 3 m), logged exposure < 5 (exposure model described in Isæus 2004), and salinity < 10 PSU. The threshold values have been obtained from literature (Snickars et al. 2010, Bergström et al. 2013, Skovrind et al. 2013, Sundblad et al. 2013). Relatively “loose” thresholds have been used, to rather overestimate than underestimate the recruitment area (precautionary approach). Along the Finnish coastline a national model has been used (Kallasvuo et al. 2016), with suitable environments for perch recruitment generalized to 1 km x 1 km grid.
Input of impulsive anthropogenic sound includes impulsive events from 2011-2016 • Seismic surveys (HELCOM-OSPAR Registry; national data call submissions as lines in the folder of data) • Explosions (HELCOM-OSPAR Registry) • Pile driving (HELCOM-OSPAR Registry) • Airguns (HELCOM-OSPAR Registry) For the different event types, numeric intensity value was used to represent the pressure as categorized in HELCOM-OSPAR Impulsive noise registry. All nationally reported seismic surveys were given intensity values “Very low” (0.25) - Very low (0.25) - Low (0.5) - Medium (0.75) - High (1) The impact distance has not been taken into account due to the different nature of separate datasets used for the pressure layer. We acknowledge that e.g. pile driving and airguns may impact up to 20 km from the source event. The spread of the sound wave depends on the sound frequency, water salinity, temperature and density.
Concentration of phosphorus pressure layer is interpolated from annual seasonal average of total phosphorus measurements from surface waters (0-10 m) extracted from ICES’s oceanographic database, database of Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, EEA’s Eionet database and Data from Gulf of Finland year 2014. The points were interpolated to cover the entire Baltic Sea with Spline with barriers interpolation method. Values were log-transformed and normalised (more detailed description below).
This dataset is built from following Human activities datasets: • http://metadata.helcom.fi/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/81c917ea-492d-48e2-9f00-e1bb7fe3e4fc • http://metadata.helcom.fi/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/4fcd51dd-b8be-4e83-8cad-37c566782e8f The game hunting of seabirds data (see separate metadata): The total number of hunted seabirds were averaged over 2011-2015 (number of hunted seabirds / year). The area of the reporting unit was used to calculate the number of hunted seabirds / km2 and the data was converted to 1km x 1km grid. The predator control of seabirds data (see separate metadata): The total number of hunted cormorants were averaged over 2011-2015 (number of hunted cormorants / year). The area of the reporting unit was used to calculate the number of hunted cormorants / km2 and the data was converted to 1km x 1km grid. The two datasets were first separately log transformed and then summed, to get the total value for each grid cell. Zero values were given to all grid cells with no reported seabird hunting activity. The layer was normalized.
Broad-scale habitat maps for the Baltic Sea have been produced in the EUSeaMap project in 2016. For German and Estonian marine areas, national (more accurate) datasets were used. German data included both substrate and light information (division into infralittoral/circalittoral). Estonian data included only substrate and the division into light regimes was obtained from the EuSeaMap data. Here, the habitat class “infralittoral mixed substrate” includes classes “mixed sediment” of the original data, in the infralittoral zone. The original polygon maps have been converted to 1 km x 1km grid. The scale of the substrate data used in broad-scale habitat maps varies from 1:250 000 to 1:1M (data from EMODnet Geology). Coarser resolution data has been used in areas, where 1: 250 000 substrate data has not been available. Due to different scales used, the habitat classes may show different sized patterns in different areas.
This dataset contains modelled small vessel fuel consumption. This describes the geographical distribution of the fuel used by small boats. The total fuel consumption was modelled in SHEBA project to study emissions from pleasure boats. The model is based on locations and berths in marinas and leisure harbours, AIS information, statistics on fuel sale and extensive survey. For 2018 version the layer is weighted with depth, log-transformed and normalised (please see below).
The pressure layer represents biological pressure caused by introduction of non-indigenous species. The data is obtained from core indicator Trend in the arrival of new non-indigenous species (BSEP 129b: http://www.helcom.fi/Lists/Publications/BSEP129B.pdf). For the Baltic Sea Impact Index, the layer was normalized.
'Availability of deep water habitat, based on occurrence of H2S' layer describes the suitability of the bottom areas for the Baltic Sea biota, with regard to oxygen conditions of the near bottom waters. The data used to produce the layer was received from Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde (IOW): - areas (polygons) with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) based on point measurements and modelling. Five time periods / year, for years 2011-2016 (altogether 30 layers). The polygons were converted to raster layers in a way, that for each time period (6 years, 5 time periods each year), areas with H2S got a value 0, other areas got the value 1. All layers were summed, (representing 6 years, 5 time periods each year, maximum value 30) and data was normalised. For more detailed information on the data used, please see Feistel et al. 2016.